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Irregular Verbs

Pattern a, b, b - Bare Stem Different from Simple Past Tense and Past Participle

by Sally Jennings

"Yesterday" is used to show the past, "now" for the present, and "tomorrow" for the future in these sample sentences. Where two forms are shown as "form 1/form 2", form 1 is the most frequently used. Many of these verbs must have an object, for example: John brought (object) yesterday. = John brought a cake yesterday.

Column One
   Bare Stem
   Use for Present Tense - for 3rd person singular only, add "s" to bare stem - singular subject (verb + s) now.

      John loses now.
      Jane loses now.
      He loses now.
      She loses now.
      It loses now.
   All others, do not add "s" to the bare stem - subject (verb) now.
      They lose now.


Column Two
   Simple Past Tense - do not add anything to verb - subject (verb) yesterday.

      John lost yesterday.
      They lost yesterday.


Column Three
   Past Participle - do not add anything to verb.

      Use for Present Perfect - subject has/have (verb), note: use "has" for 3rd person singular only, all others use "have":
         John has lost. He has lost.
         They have lost.

      Use for Past Perfect - subject had (verb).
         John had lost yesterday.
         They had lost yesterday.

      Use for Future Perfect - subject will have (verb) tomorrow.
         John will have lost tomorrow.
         They will have lost tomorrow.


Column One Column Two Column Three
Bare Stem Simple Past Tense Past Participle
Present Tense
add "s" only for 3rd person singular
He (verb + s) now.
They (verb) now.
He (verb) yesterday.
It (verb) yesterday.
They (verb) yesterday.
He has (verb). It has (verb).
They have (verb).
He had (verb) yesterday.
He will have (verb) tomorrow.
bend bent bent
bind bound bound
bleed bled bled
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burned/burnt burnt/burned
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
cling clung clung
creep crept crept
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dream dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
grind ground ground
hang hung hung
hear heard heard
hold held held
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
lay laid laid
lead led led
leap leaped/leapt leapt/leaped
learn learned/learnt learnt/learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
misspell misspelled misspelled
mow mowed mowed/mown
pay paid paid
plead pled pled
say said said
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
speed sped sped
spend spent spent
spill spilled/spilt spilt/spilled
spin spun spun
stand stood stood
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
strike struck struck
string strung strung
sweep swept swept
swing swung swung
teach taught taught
tell told told
think thought thought
understand understood understood
uphold upheld upheld
weep wept wept
wind wound wound
win won won
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung

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